# 1) Liquefied Petroleum Gas: basics

- LPG is mostly
**propane and butane** **1 kg of LPG is 1.96 liters****LPG has an useful energy value of 20.7 MJ/kg**- Liquefaction reduces volume about
**250 times.**

From **energipedia****:**

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a by-product of natural gas extraction and crude oil refining. LPG is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases, the most common being butane and propane.[1]Â

At room temperature, LPG is a colorless and odorless non-toxic gas. Under modest pressure or cooler conditions, it transforms into a liquid state. **This process leads to the reduction of the volume to 1/250 of the gaseous aggregate state and allows to store and transport LPG easily in cylinders***. *

**LPG has an useful energy value of 20.7 MJ/kg***. *In comparison, air-dried firewood has an energy content of around 16 MJ/kg and charcoal of 27 - 33 MJ/kg. Depending on the type of woodfuel, charcoal production, and cook stove, between 7.3 and **29.7kg of woodfuel would be required to provide the same amount of useful cooking energy found in 1 kg of LPG.**[2]Â

LPG is heavier than air, e.g. **propane is one and a half times heavier than air**, and can therefore accumulate above the ground. This may lead to LPG-â€™lakesâ€™ that potentially can causes explosions. A foul smelling odorant is added to help detect leaks and thus reduce the risk of explosion.

## 2) The â€ś3KG LPG Canister (pic on the right)

### a) Physical characteristics

- Diameter: 210mm / Height: 270mm / Volume: 6.0L total
- Weight: 3kg total.
- Working pressure:
**18bar**/ Test pressure: 34bar

### b) LPG content

Since 1kg of LPG is 1.96L and steel vessels are filled to 80â€“85% of their capacity to allow forÂ thermal expansionÂ of the contained liquid, we have:

**4.8L of LPG**(80% of 6L)**2.45kg of LPG**(4.8/1.96 kg = 2.45 kg).

### c) Energy content

LPG has an useful energy value ofÂ **20.7 MJ/kg.**

- 2.45kg of LPG contains
**50.7MJ**

[What is the efficiency of the heat / electricity conversion? depending on the method ?]

A typicalÂ LPG cooking systemÂ is made up of a steel cylinder filled with LPG, a pressure controller, a tube connecting the cylinder to the pressure controller and the burner, and finally the burner itself.

## 3) Average total energy Indonesian household / month

Indonesia is total consumption is 256.74 billion kWh of electric energy per year. Per capita this is an average of **932 kWh, but ****this is not the average household consumption****. **

### a) Average total energy consumption __per year__:

- Country:
- Per capita:
- Household:

### a) Average total energy consumption __per month__:

- Country:
- Per capita:
- Household

### b) Bonus: breakout details (electricity, gas, etc)

1) Electricity:

As of 2022, the electricity consumption per capita in Indonesia amounted to aroundÂ **1,173 kilowatt hours**. In the past few years, the government has been working to steadily increase the electrification rate in Indonesia

I did a google search, but this should be confirmed with locals.

As of 2022, the electricity consumption per capita in Indonesia amounted to around1,173 kilowatt hours.[Statista]

A kilowatt hour isÂ **equivalent to a steady power of one kilowatt running for one hour**Â and is equivalent to 3.6 MJ (megajoules). Therefore in terms of energy the average consumption per capita is

The calculation for 1173 kilowatt hours is:

1173 * 3.6 = **4,222.8 MJ**

This means 83.32 canisters of 3kg, each one containing 4.8L. In litters itâ€™s 83*4.8 = 398 L of LIQUIFIED LPG

gaseous 389*250 = 97250 LITRES of propane

# How much do they pay for it?

- How much hydrogen would they need to cover these needs?
- How much volume of hydrogen is that at 1 atmosphere (in liter or m3)? How small can we make this (at a standard compression)?
- Density of hydrogen at STP: 0.9 g/L
- Energy density: 120 MJ/kg
- How much hydrogen can we pack in a regular 3KG LPG canister (which is Bali most popular gas canister)?

LPG:

Roughly 50 MJ/

calorific value: 46 MJ/m^3 (vaporized at STP)

The density of LPG liquid is 0.493 g/cmÂł at 25 Â°C (77 Â°F)