How much H2 is needed for a household?

1) Liquefied Petroleum Gas: basics

  • LPG is mostly propane and butane
  • 1 kg of LPG is 1.96 liters
  • LPG has an useful energy value of 20.7 MJ/kg
  • Liquefaction reduces volume about 250 times.


Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a by-product of natural gas extraction and crude oil refining. LPG is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases, the most common being butane and propane.[1] 

At room temperature, LPG is a colorless and odorless non-toxic gas. Under modest pressure or cooler conditions, it transforms into a liquid state. This process leads to the reduction of the volume to 1/250 of the gaseous aggregate state and allows to store and transport LPG easily in cylinders.

LPG has an useful energy value of 20.7 MJ/kg. In comparison, air-dried firewood has an energy content of around 16 MJ/kg and charcoal of 27 - 33 MJ/kg. Depending on the type of woodfuel, charcoal production, and cook stove, between 7.3 and 29.7kg of woodfuel would be required to provide the same amount of useful cooking energy found in 1 kg of LPG.[2] 

LPG is heavier than air, e.g. propane is one and a half times heavier than air, and can therefore accumulate above the ground. This may lead to LPG-’lakes’ that potentially can causes explosions. A foul smelling odorant is added to help detect leaks and thus reduce the risk of explosion.

2) The “3KG LPG Canister (pic on the right)

a) Physical characteristics

  • Diameter: 210mm / Height: 270mm / Volume: 6.0L total
  • Weight: 3kg total.
  • Working pressure: 18bar / Test pressure: 34bar

b) LPG content

Since 1kg of LPG is 1.96L and steel vessels are filled to 80–85% of their capacity to allow for thermal expansion of the contained liquid, we have:

  • 4.8L of LPG (80% of 6L)
  • 2.45kg of LPG (4.8/1.96 kg = 2.45 kg).

c) Energy content

LPG has an useful energy value of 20.7 MJ/kg.

  • 2.45kg of LPG contains 50.7MJ

[What is the efficiency of the heat / electricity conversion? depending on the method ?]


A typical LPG cooking system is made up of a steel cylinder filled with LPG, a pressure controller, a tube connecting the cylinder to the pressure controller and the burner, and finally the burner itself.

3) Average total energy Indonesian household / month

Indonesia is total consumption is 256.74 billion kWh of electric energy per year. Per capita this is an average of 932 kWh, but this is not the average household consumption.

a) Average total energy consumption per year:

  • Country:
  • Per capita:
  • Household:

a) Average total energy consumption per month:

  • Country:
  • Per capita:
  • Household

b) Bonus: breakout details (electricity, gas, etc)


Note: energy sources


1) Electricity:

As of 2022, the electricity consumption per capita in Indonesia amounted to around 1,173 kilowatt hours. In the past few years, the government has been working to steadily increase the electrification rate in Indonesia

I did a google search, but this should be confirmed with locals.

As of 2022, the electricity consumption per capita in Indonesia amounted to around 1,173 kilowatt hours. [Statista]

A kilowatt hour is equivalent to a steady power of one kilowatt running for one hour and is equivalent to 3.6 MJ (megajoules). Therefore in terms of energy the average consumption per capita is

The calculation for 1173 kilowatt hours is:

1173 * 3.6 = 4,222.8 MJ

This means 83.32 canisters of 3kg, each one containing 4.8L. In litters it’s 83*4.8 = 398 L of LIQUIFIED LPG

gaseous 389*250 = 97250 LITRES of propane

https://www.statista.com/statistics/1092084/household-electricity-consumption-per-capita/#:~:text=As of 2022%2C the electricity,the electrification rate in Indonesia

How much do they pay for it?

  1. How much hydrogen would they need to cover these needs?
  2. How much volume of hydrogen is that at 1 atmosphere (in liter or m3)? How small can we make this (at a standard compression)?
    • Density of hydrogen at STP: 0.9 g/L
    • Energy density: 120 MJ/kg
  3. How much hydrogen can we pack in a regular 3KG LPG canister (which is Bali most popular gas canister)?


Roughly 50 MJ/

calorific value: 46 MJ/m^3 (vaporized at STP)

The density of LPG liquid is 0.493 g/cm³ at 25 °C (77 °F)