1) Methods of green hydrogen production
- Solar, wind, water currents
- Micro-droplets for algal cells or synergistic algal-bacterial multicellular spheroid microbial reactors capable of producing oxygen as well as hydrogen via photosynthesis in daylight under air
- From the air:
- Also check this page (from Cesar):
Polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis - Wikipedia
Polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis Type of Electrolysis: PEM Electrolysis Style of membrane/diaphragm Solid polymer Bipolar/separator plate material Titanium or gold and platinum coated titanium Catalyst material on the anode Iridium Catalyst material on the cathode Platinum Anode PTL material Titanium Cathode PTL material Carbon paper/carbon fleece Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolysis is the electrolysis of water in a cell equipped with a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) that is responsible for the conduction of protons, separation of product gases, and electrical insulation of the electrodes.
The main components required to achieve electrolysis are an electrolyte, electrodes, and an external power source. A partition (e.g. an ion-exchange membraneor a salt bridge) is optional to keep the products from diffusing to the vicinity of the opposite electrode.
Advantages of PEM electrolysis
One of the largest advantages to PEM electrolysis is its ability to operate at high current densities. This can result in reduced operational costs, especially for systems coupled with very dynamic energy sources such as wind and solar, where sudden spikes in energy input would otherwise result in uncaptured energy. The polymer electrolyte allows the PEM electrolyzer to operate with a very thin membrane (~100-200 μm) while still allowing high pressures, resulting in low ohmic losses, primarily caused by the conduction of protons across the membrane (0.1 S/cm) and a compressed hydrogen output.
The polymer electrolyte membrane, due to its solid structure, exhibits a low gas crossover rate resulting in very high product gas purity. Maintaining a high gas purity is important for storage safety and for the direct usage in a fuel cell. The safety limits for H2 in O2 are at standard conditions 4 mol-% H2 in O2.
The actual value for open circuit voltage of an operating electrolyzer will lie between the 1.23 V and 1.48 V depending on how the cell/stack design utilizes the thermal energy inputs. This is however quite difficult to determine or measure because an operating electrolyzer also experiences other voltage losses from internal electrical resistances, proton conductivity, mass transport through the cell and catalyst utilization to name a few.
2) Hydrogen Fuel Cell (production, conversion)
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3) Storage, compressed hydrogen
Compressed hydrogen (CH2, CGH2 or CGH2) is the gaseous state of the element hydrogen kept under pressure. Compressed hydrogen in hydrogen tanksat 350 bar (5,000 psi) and 700 bar (10,000 psi) is used for mobile hydrogen storage in hydrogen vehicles. It is used as a fuel gas.
Guided rotor compressor
The guided rotor compressor (GRC) is a positive-displacement rotary compressor based upon an envoluted[check spelling] trochoid geometry which utilizes a parallel trochoid curve to define its basic compression volume. It has a typical 80 to 85% adiabatic efficiency.
HHO generator works by converting water into HHO gas through an electrolysis process. The gas produced is then channeled into the combustion chamber through the air intake in order to complete combustion so that the engine of the vehicle using gasoline, diesel, and LPG gas will get oxygen and hydrogen HHO gas into the combustion chamber.
@Cesar Jung-Harada : maybe we could compress hydrogen using a mechanical system, a piston moved by the up and down motion by the waves. It will be slow, but then, we dont produce much. Intrigued by this idea… could be a patent. I have to force myself not to think about it now haha.
Something along these lines:
US20110158827A1 - Wave Driven Air Compressor - Google Patents
A vertical wave powered air compressor where different parts of the structure are at different depths (and hence static pressures). A plurality of compression stages are stacked one below the other. Each level has two or more chambers. The chambers have a series of check valves or water seals between them.
… but what i am thinking is very different (just a simple double piston compressor - reciprocating pump compressor - the shaft moved by the waves or something like that - small, very different. Something along these lines:
@Cesar Jung-Harada @Pamela Pascual : maybe what we can do is also present at the end of the workshop a “leonardo da-vincesque” poster with these ideas. I like the idea of a pod that somehow integrates everything (actually this could be the real long term research):
- desalinizer using part of the solar energy
- the desalinized water can be an interesting product itself, but also used for the PEM electrolyzer (that uses solar of course)
- the electrolyzer produces hydrogen,
- …but also oxigen disolved in water - it can be pumped deep to the sea bed to counter the de-oxygenation produced by polution, etc.
- The hydrogen can be compressed using a mechanical, wave-driven pump (as in the drawing on the right), and interestingly, this long shaft and the pump itself (separated compartment) used to pump the oxygenated water down the ocean..
@Cesar Jung-Harada I totally with the idea of including wave motion into the system (at a later stage). The idea I mentioned earlier would be:
•combining 3 renewable energy apexes, micro-wins turbine, solar and wave motion;
•dissalinate the water “on spot”
•split and store the hydrogen and the oxygen too
The “Leonerdo -Davincheaque” postar as a “further steps inspiration” could be great, specially give the “Anime” Art Skills that we have resident in the Group! 😎