The Values of Local Wisdom in Sakenan Temple as a Source of Local History Learning


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ABSTRACT Pura Dalem Sakenan, located in Banjar Dukuh, Serangan Selatan Village, South Denpasar, was built by Hyang Maharesi Markandeya on his journey to spread religious teachings called Tri Sakti Paksa, namely the teachings of Vishnu. Pura Dalem Sakenan Uang, which was built during the reign of the Warmadewa Dynasty, has a very important function for the community. In the religious field, it serves as a place to pray for the elimination of all kinds of diseases that harm crops in the fields, as Hyang Sakenan protects against plant pests, ensuring the prosperity of rice plants and other crops. In the economic sector, the community that maintains Pura Dalem Sakenan is exempt from taxes, thereby improving people's lives. They pray for plant fertility and the calm of the ocean, resulting in abundant yields for farmers and fishermen. In the socio-political field, it serves as a unifying place for people of different beliefs, fostering harmony and peaceful coexistence. This illustrates that during the Warmadewa Dynasty's rule, the Balinese community already understood the concept of "local wisdom." Keywords: Local Wisdom, Sakenan Temple, Local History

INTRODUCTION Dalem Sakenan Temple, located on the northwest coast of Serangan Island, a small island off the coast of Bali, was built by Hyang Maharesi Markandeya during ancient Bali's Warmadewa Dynasty, spanning from the 8th to the 14th century CE. The temple complex consists of several shrines, symbolizing the social harmony among various religious sects that thrived during the Warmadewa Dynasty. Pura Sakenan is divided into three courtyards: Utama mandala, madya mandala, and nista mandala. This spatial division concept is also evident in other Balinese puri (palaces) and is derived from the Tri Hita Karana concept.

As one of the sacred places for Hindu worship, Pura Dalem Sakenan is imbued with local wisdom values that guide the community's way of life. Local wisdom involves using human reason (cognition) to act and behave towards specific objects, subjects, or events in a particular space. Essentially, local wisdom consists of the values that govern a society, beliefs accepted as truths, and references for daily behavior among local people (Ridwan, 2007). In this context, it is interesting to examine the "Values of Local Wisdom in Pura Sakenan as a Local History Heritage."

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This study is fundamentally historical research aimed at uncovering and understanding past events. It involves specific research procedures, including heuristic, criticism, interpretation, and historical narrative construction. Data is collected through literature review, primary data related to Pura Sakenan, and then subjected to historical criticism, external and internal criticism, to obtain accurate information for the historical narrative. Historical facts that have been criticized need to be interpreted to create a systematic narrative that considers chronological, serial, and causal aspects.

VALUES OF LOCAL WISDOM IN PURA SAKENAN AS A LOCAL HISTORY HERITAGE Local wisdom encompasses the skills and strategies for managing the universe while maintaining ecological balance. It has been tested for centuries against various disasters and human neglect. Local wisdom goes beyond ethics; it extends to norms, actions, and behaviors, making it a guiding force in both daily life and broader human civilization (Wahono, 2005).

Local wisdom, often passed down through generations, includes knowledge, beliefs, understandings, insights, cultural norms, and ethical values guiding human behavior within an ecological community. This local wisdom is lived, practiced, taught, and passed on from one generation to the next, shaping human interactions with other humans, nature, and the supernatural (Keraf, 2002).

The Balinese community, as a geographically, ethnically, and religiously unified entity, possesses local wisdom that has proven its social adaptability in addressing various social challenges. The local wisdom values developed and believed in by the Balinese act as social glue, serving as a reference point for building relationships and harmony among followers of different religions in Bali. Some of these local wisdom values include:

  1. Tri Hita Karana values: A cosmopolitan concept emphasizing the harmonization of human relationships with the divine (sutata parhyangan), human relationships (sutata pawongan), and human relationships with nature (sutata palemahan). This value is evident in the spatial division of Pura Sakenan into three courtyards, symbolizing the harmonious coexistence of different realms.
  2. Harmony (Rwa Bhineda): The Balinese concept of harmony is rooted in the belief that opposites are complementary and necessary for balance. This value promotes tolerance and coexistence among diverse religious sects in Bali, as seen in Pura Sakenan's inclusive architecture.
  3. Environmental sustainability: Local wisdom emphasizes the importance of maintaining ecological balance and respecting nature. In Pura Sakenan, this value is reflected in the rituals performed to seek protection from plant pests and ensure the prosperity of crops.
  4. Cultural preservation: Local wisdom encourages the preservation of cultural heritage and traditions. Pura Sakenan serves as a repository of cultural and historical knowledge, fostering a sense of identity and continuity among the Balinese.
  5. Social cohesion: The values of local wisdom promote social cohesion by providing a shared set of beliefs and norms that guide interpersonal relationships and community life. Pura Sakenan serves as a unifying place for people of different beliefs, fostering harmony and peaceful coexistence.

CONCLUSION Pura Dalem Sakenan, a sacred temple complex built during the Warmadewa Dynasty in Bali, embodies the values of local wisdom that have guided the Balinese community's way of life for centuries. These values, including Tri Hita Karana, harmony, environmental sustainability, cultural preservation, and social cohesion, are integral to the Balinese identity and serve as a source of character education and cultural continuity. Pura Sakenan's role as a local history heritage site highlights the importance of preserving and transmitting local wisdom to future generations, ensuring the continued vitality of these values in the face of modern challenges and disruptions.